Last time we discussed regular
expressions as generators for the strings that comprise a
Today we will discuss finite automata, which are abstract machines that serve as "recognizers" for the strings that comprise a regular language. The idea is that we can feed an input string into a finite automaton, and it will answer "yes" or "no" depending on whether or not the input string belongs to the language that the automaton recognizes.
Note that not all possible languages are
regular languages. There are interesting classes of languages
that cannot be generated by regular expressions or recognized by finite
Note that a correct finite automaton for language L must answer "yes" for every
string that belongs to L and
answer "no" to every string that does not belong to L.
A finite automaton consists of states
and transitions. We
denote states as circles and transitions as arrows connecting one state
Exactly one state of a finite automaton is designated as the start state. The start state
is often represented by marking it with a minus ("-") symbol.
JFLAP denotes the start state by marking it with a triangle.
At least one state of a finite automaton is designated as an accepting state. It is legal for a finite automaton to have multiple accepting states. An accepting state is often represented by marking it with a plus ("+") symbol. JFLAP denotes an accepting state by drawing it with two circles, one inside each other.
Note that it is legal for the start state to also be an accepting
A transition from one state to another is labeled with a symbol (from the alphabet of the language recognized by the finite automaton) or with the special symbol epsilon ("ε").
A finite automaton processes an input string according to the following algorithm.
The input string is read from a tape. The tape head is initially positioned over the first symbol of the input string.
The current state starts out as the start state.
(1) If the current state has a transition labeled ε:
- Choose a transition labeled ε to the
state (updating current state)
and go back to beginning of loop
- Do nothing (go to step 2)
(2) if there are no more symbols to be read from the tape:
If the current
state is an accepting state, then the input string is accepted and the algorithm terminates
If the current state is not an accepting state, then the input string is rejected and the algorithm terminates
(3) If the current state has no transition labeled with a symbol matching the symbol under the tape head:
The input string is rejected and the algorithm terminates
(4) Nondeterministic choice:
Choose a transition labeled with a symbol matching the one under the tape head. Move the tape head forward one position. Follow the transition to the next state (updating current state).
Example: for the following finite automaton:
The input string
causes the algorithm to traverse the states
0 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 4
Because the input tape is empty when the algorithm reaches state 4
(an accepting state), the string is accepted.
In the algorithm, two points were labeled as "nondeterministic
Nondeterminism means that when the algorithm is faced with multiple
choices for what to do next, it does them all "at the same time".
One way to think about this is that a parallel universe is created and
the algorithm continues in both the current universe and the parallel
universe, making a different choice in each universe.
Nondeterminism affects finite automata as follows: an automaton
accepts an input string as part of the language recognized by the
automaton as long as there is at least one universe in which the
automaton accepts the input string. The input string is rejected
(not part of the language) if there is no universe in which the string
Only some finite automata can exhibit nondeterminism. A finite automaton that never exhibits nondeterminism is called a deterministic finite automaton, or DFA. A finite automaton that can exhibit nondeterminism is called a nondeterministic finite automaton, or NFA.
There are two features of finite automata that can lead to nondeterminism:
transitions labeled ε
multiple transitions out of a single state having the same label
Therefore, a DFA is simply a finite automaton that does not have either of these features.
Interestingly, DFAs and NFAs have the same amount of expressive power: given any NFA, we can construct a DFA that recognizes precisely the same language as the NFA, and vice versa. However, to construct an equivalent DFA for an NFA may require an exponential increase in the number of states.
JFLAP is a software package for constructing and simulating various kinds of automata, including finite automata.
Demo: using JFLAP to construct the DFA mentioned earlier. Simulate on input strings: